What are the Surface Preparation for Concrete?
Joint Surface Preparation Standard SSPC-SP 13/NACE NO.06 – Surface Preparation of Concrete
This SSPC: The Society for Protective Coatings/NACE International (NACE) standard represents a consensus of those individual members who have reviewed this document, its scope, and provisions. It is intended to aid the manufacturer, the consumer, and the general public. Its acceptance does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has adopted the standard or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not addressed in this standard. Nothing contained in this SSPC/NACE standard is to be construed as granting any right, by implication or otherwise, to manufacture, sell, or use in connection with any method, apparatus, or product covered by Letters Patent, or as indemnifying or protecting anyone against liability for infringement of Letters Patent. This standard represents current technology and should in no way be interpreted as a restriction on the use of better procedures or materials. Neither is this standard intended to apply in all cases relating to the subject. Unpredictable circumstances may negate the usefulness of this standard in specific instances. SSPC and NACE assume no responsibility for the interpretation or use of this standard by other parties and accept responsibility for only those official interpretations issued by SSPC or NACE in accordance with their governing procedures and policies which preclude the issuance of interpretations by individual volunteers.
Users of this SSPC/NACE standard are responsible for reviewing appropriate health, safety, environmental, and regulatory documents and for determining their applicability in relation to this standard prior to its use. This SSPC/NACE standard may not necessarily address all potential health and safety problems or environmental hazards associated with the use of materials, equipment, and/or operations detailed or referred to within this standard. Users of this SSPC/NACE standard are also responsible for establishing appropriate health, safety, and environmental protection practices, in consultation with appropriate regulatory authorities if necessary, to achieve compliance with any existing applicable regulatory requirements prior to the use of this standard.
CAUTIONARY NOTICE: SSPC/NACE standards are subject to periodic review, and may be revised or withdrawn at any time without prior notice. The user is cautioned to obtain the latest edition. SSPC and NACE require that action be taken to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five years from the date of initial publication.
Reaffirmed 2003-03-17 Approved 1997
©2003, SSPC: The Society for Protective Coatings and NACE International
This standard covers the preparation of concrete surfaces prior to the application of protective coating or lining systems. This standard should be used by specifiers, applicators, inspectors, and others who are responsible for defining a standard degree of cleanliness, strength, profile, and dryness of prepared concrete surfaces.
This standard was originally prepared in 1997 by SSPC/NACE Joint Task Group F on Surface Preparation of Concrete. It was reaffirmed in 2003 by SSPC Group Committee C.2 on Surface Preparation and NACE Specific Technology Group 04 on Protective Coatings and Linings— Surface Preparation. This standard is issued by SSPC Group Committee C.2 and by NACE International under the auspices of STG 04.
Section 1: General
1.1 This standard gives requirements for surface preparation of concrete by mechanical, chemical, or thermal methods prior to the application of bonded protective coating or lining systems.
1.2 The requirements of this standard are applicable to all types of cementitious surfaces including cast-in-place concrete floors and walls, precast slabs, masonry walls, and shotcrete surfaces.
1.3 An acceptable prepared concrete surface should be free of contaminants, laitance, loosely adhering concrete, and dust, and should provide a sound, uniform substrate suitable for the application of protective coating or lining systems.
1.4 When required, a minimum concrete surface strength, maximum surface moisture content, and surface profile range should be specified in the procurement documents (project specifications).
1.5 The mandatory requirements of this standard are given in Sections 1 to 7 as follows:
Section 1: General
Section 2: Definitions
Section 3: Inspection
Section 4: Procedures Prior to Surface Preparation
Section 5: Surface Preparation
Section 6: Inspection and Classification of Prepared Concrete Surfaces Acceptance Criteria
Section 7: Safety and Environmental Requirements
1.6 Appendix A does not contain mandatory requirements.
Section 2: Definitions
Coating: See Protective Coating or Lining System.
Concrete: A material made from hydraulic cement and inert aggregates, such as sand and gravel, which is mixed with water to a workable consistency and placed by various methods to harden and gain strength.
Curing (Concrete): Action taken to maintain moisture and temperature conditions in a freshly placed cementitious mixture to allow hydraulic cement hydration so that potential properties of the mixture may develop.
Curing Compound (Membrane Curing Compound): A liquid that can be applied as a coating to the surface of newly placed concrete to retard the loss of water.1
Efflorescence: A white crystalline or powdery deposit on the surface of concrete. Efflorescence results from leaching of lime or calcium hydroxide out of a permeable concrete mass over time by water, followed by reaction with carbon dioxide and acidic pollutants.2
Fin: A narrow linear projection on a formed concrete surface, resulting from mortar flowing into spaces in the form work.
Finish: The texture of a surface after consolidating and finishing operations have been performed.1
Finishing: Leveling, smoothing, consolidating, and otherwise treating surfaces of fresh or recently placed concrete or mortar to produce desired appearance and service.1
Hardener (Concrete): A chemical (including certain fluorosilicates or sodium silicate) applied to concrete floors to reduce wear and dusting.1
High-Pressure Water Cleaning (HP WC): Water cleaning performed at pressures from 34 to 70 MPa (5,000 to 10,000 psig).3
High-Pressure Waterjetting (HP WJ): Waterjetting performed at pressures from 70 to 210 MPa (10,000 to 30,000 psig).3
Honeycomb: Voids left in concrete due to failure of the mortar to effectively fill the spaces among coarse aggregate particles.1
Laitance: A thin, weak, brittle layer of cement and aggregate fines on a concrete surface. The amount of laitance is influenced by the type and amount of admixtures, the degree of working, and the amount of water in the concrete.2
Lining: See Protective Coating or Lining System.
Placing: The deposition, distribution, and consolidation of freshly mixed concrete in the place where it is to harden.1
Porosity: Small voids that allow fluids to penetrate an otherwise impervious material.
Protective Coating or Lining System (Coating): For the purposes of this standard, protective coating or lining systems (also called protective barrier systems) are bonded thermoset, thermoplastic, inorganic, organic/inorganic hybrids, or metallic materials applied in one or more layers by various methods such as brush, roller, trowel, spray, and thermal spray. They are used to protect concrete from degradation by chemicals, abrasion, physical damage, and the subsequent loss of structural integrity. Other potential functions include containing chemicals, preventing staining of concrete, and preventing liquids from being contaminated by concrete.
Release Agents (Form-Release Agents): Materials used to prevent bonding of concrete to a surface.1
Sealer (Sealing Compound): A liquid that is applied as a coating to a concrete surface to prevent or decrease the penetration of liquid or gaseous media during exposure. Some curing compounds also function as sealers.
Soundness: A qualitative measure of the suitability of the concrete to perform as a solid substrate or base for a coating or patching material. Sound concrete substrates usually exhibit strength and cohesiveness without excessive voids or cracks.
Spalling (Concrete): The development of spalls which are fragments, usually in the shape of a flake, detached from a larger mass by a blow, by the action of weather, by pressure, or by expansion within the larger mass.1
Surface Porosity: Porosity or permeability at the concrete surface that may absorb vapors, moisture, chemicals, and coating liquids.
Surface Preparation: The method or combination of methods used to clean a concrete surface, remove loose and weak materials and contaminants from the surface, repair the surface, and roughen the surface to promote adhesion of a protective coating or lining system.
Surface Profile (Texture): Surface contour as viewed from edge.
Surface Air Voids: Cavities visible on the surface of a solid.
Section 3: Inspection Procedures Prior to Surface Preparation
3.1 Concrete shall be inspected prior to surface preparation to determine the condition of the concrete and to determine the appropriate method or combination of methods to be used for surface preparation to meet the requirements of the coating system to be applied. Inherent variations in surface conditions seen in walls and ceilings versus those in floors should be considered when choosing surface preparation methods and techniques. For example, walls and ceilings are much more likely than floors to contain surface air voids, fins, form-release agents, and honeycombs.
3.2 Visual Inspection
All concrete surfaces to be prepared and coated shall be visually inspected for signs of concrete defects, physical damage, chemical damage, contamination, and excess moisture.
3.3 Concrete Cure
All concrete should be cured using the procedures described in ACI(1) 308.4 Curing requirements include maintaining sufficient moisture and temperatures for a minimum time period. Surface preparation performed on insufficiently cured or low-strength concrete may create an excessively coarse surface profile or remove an excessive amount of concrete. (1)
3.4 Concrete Defects
Concrete defects such as honeycombs and spalling shall be repaired. The procedures described in NACE Standard
5(2)67 RP0390, ICRI 03730, or ACI 301 may be used to ensure that the concrete surface is sound prior to surface preparation.
3.5 Physical Damage
3.5.1 Concrete should be tested for soundness by the qualitative methods described in NACE Publication 6G1918 or Paragraph A1.4.3.
3.5.2 When qualitative results are indeterminate, or when a quantitative result is specified, concrete shall be tested for surface tensile strength using the methods described in Paragraph A1.6.
3.5.3 Concrete that has been damaged because of physical forces such as impact, abrasion, or corrosion of reinforcement shall be repaired prior to surface preparation if the damage would affect coating performance. Repairs should be made in accordance with ACI 301,7 NACE Standard RP0390,5 or Paragraph A1.4.
3.6 Chemical Damage
3.6.1 Concrete is attacked by a variety of chemicals, as detailed in ACI 515.1Rand PCA IS001.
3.6.2 All concrete surfaces that have been exposed to chemicals shall be tested and treated for contamination as described in Paragraph 3.7.
3.6.3 Concrete that has been exposed to chemicals shall be tested for soundness by the qualitative methods described in NACE Publication 6G191 or Paragraph A1.4.3.
3.7.1 Contamination on concrete surfaces includes all materials that may affect the adhesion and performance of the coating to be applied. Examples include, but are not limited to, dirt, oil, grease, chemicals, and existing incompatible coatings.
3.7.2 Contamination may be detected by methods described in NACE Publication 6G1918 and Paragraph A1.5. These methods include, but are not limited to, visual examination, water drop (contact angle) measurement, pH testing, petrographic examination, and various instrumental analytical methods. Core sampling may be required to determine the depth to which the contaminant has penetrated the concrete.
3.7.3 Concrete surfaces that are contaminated or that have existing coatings shall be tested by the method described in Paragraph A1.6.3 to determine whether the contamination or existing coating affects the adhesion and performance of the coating to be applied. Concrete surfaces that have existing coatings shall also be tested by the method described in Paragraph A1.6.3 to determine whether the existing coating is sufficiently bonded to the concrete.
3.7.4 In extreme cases of concrete damage or degradation, or thorough penetration by contaminants, complete removal and replacement of the concrete may be required in the surface preparation.
Moisture levels in the concrete may be determined by the methods described in Paragraph 5.6.
Section 4: Surface Preparation
4.1.1 The objective of surface preparation is to produce a concrete surface that is suitable for application and adhesion of the specified protective coating system.
4.1.2 Protrusions such as from burrs, sharp edges, fins, and concrete spatter shall be removed during surface preparation.
4.1.3 Voids and other defects that are at or near the surface shall be exposed during surface preparation.
4.1.4 All concrete that is not sound shall be removed so that only sound concrete remains.
4.1.5 Concrete damaged by exposure to chemicals shall be removed so that only sound concrete remains.
4.1.6 All contamination, form-release agents, efflorescence, curing compounds, and existing coatings determined to be incompatible with the coating to be applied shall be removed.
4.1.7 The surface preparation method, or combination of methods, should be chosen based on the condition of the concrete and the requirements of the coating system to be applied.
4.1.8 All prepared concrete surfaces shall be repaired to the level required by the coating system in the intended service condition.
4.2 Surface Cleaning Methods
4.2.1 The surface cleaning methods described in Paragraphs 4.2.2 and 4.2.3 shall not be used as the sole surface preparation method of concrete to be coated as they do not remove laitance or contaminants or alter the surface profile of concrete. These methods shall be used as required, before and/or after the mechanical and chemical methods described in Paragraphs 4.3 and 4.4.
4.2.2 Vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, and water cleaning as described in ASTM D 4258may be used to remove dirt, loose material, and/or dust from concrete.
4.2.3 Detergent water cleaning and steam cleaning as described in ASTM D 425811 may be used to remove oils and grease from concrete.
4.3 Mechanical Surface Preparation Methods
4.3.1 Dry abrasive blasting, wet abrasive blasting, vacuum-assisted abrasive blasting, and centrifugal shot blasting, as described in ASTM D 4259,12 may be used to remove contaminants, laitance, and weak concrete, to expose subsurface voids, and to produce a sound concrete surface with adequate profile and surface porosity.
4.3.2 High-pressure water cleaning or waterjetting methods as described in SSPC-SP 12/NACE No. 5,2 ASTM D 4259,12 or “Recommended Practices for the Use of Manually Operated High Pressure Water Jetting Equipment,” may be used to remove contaminants, laitance, and weak concrete, to expose subsurface voids, and to produce a sound concrete surface with adequate profile and surface porosity.
4.3.3 Impact-tool methods may be used to remove existing coatings, laitance, and weak concrete. These methods include scarifying, planing, scabbling, and rotary peening, as described in ASTM D 4259.12 Impact-tool methods may fracture concrete surfaces or cause micro-cracking and may need to be followed by one of the procedures in Paragraphs 4.3.1 or 4.3.2 to produce a sound concrete surface with adequate profile and surface porosity. The soundness of a concrete surface prepared using an impact method may be verified by one of the surface tensile strength tests described in Paragraph A1.6.
4.3.4 Power-tool methods, including circular grinding, sanding, and wire brushing as described in ASTM D 4259,12 may be used to remove existing coatings, laitance, weak concrete, and protrusions in concrete. These methods may not produce the required surface profile and may require one of the procedures described in Paragraphs 4.3.1 or 4.3.2 to produce a concrete surface with adequate profile and surface porosity.
4.3.5 Surface preparation using the methods described in Paragraphs 4.3.1 through 4.3.4 shall be performed in a manner that provides a uniform, sound surface that is suitable for the specified protective coating system.
4.4 Chemical Surface Preparation
Acid etching, as described in ASTM D 426014 and NACE Standard RP0892,15 may be used to remove laitance and weak concrete and to provide a surface profile on horizontal concrete surfaces. This method requires complete removal of all reaction products and pH testing to ensure neutralization of the acid. Acid etching is not recommended for vertical surfaces and areas where curing compounds or sealers have been used. Acid etching shall only be used where procedures for handling, containment, and disposal of the hazardous materials are in place. Acid etching with hydrochloric acid shall not be used where corrosion of metal in the concrete (rebar or metal fibers) is likely to occur. (5)
4.5 Flame (Thermal) Cleaning and Blasting
4.5.1 Flame cleaning using a propane torch or other heat source may be used to extract organic contaminants from a concrete surface. To remove the extracted contaminants this type of cleaning may need to be followed by the cleaning methods described in ASTM D 114258.
4.5.2 Flame cleaning and blasting using oxygen-acetylene flame blasting methods and proprietary delivery equipment may be used to remove existing coatings, contaminants, and laitance and/or create a surface profile on sound concrete.
4.5.3 The extent of removal when employing flame methods is affected by the rate of equipment advancement, the flame adjustment, and the distance between the flame and the concrete surface. Surface preparation using flame methods shall be performed in a manner that provides a uniform, sound surface that is suitable for the specified protective coating system.
4.5.4 High temperatures reduce the strength of or damage concrete; therefore, surfaces prepared using flame methods shall be tested for soundness and surface tensile strength. Concrete surfaces found to be unsound or low in tensile strength shall be repaired or prepared by other mechanical methods described in Paragraph 4.3.
4.6 Surface Cleanliness
After the concrete surface has been prepared to the required soundness and surface profile, surfaces may still need to be cleaned by one of the methods described in Paragraph 4.2 to remove the residue created by the surface preparation method or to remove spent media.
4.7 Moisture Content
If the moisture level in the concrete is higher than the specified limit tolerable by the coating, the concrete shall be dried or allowed to dry to the level specified in the procurement documents before inspection and application of the coating (see Paragraph 5.6).
4.8 Patching and Repairs
4.8.1 Prior to proceeding with patching and repairs, the prepared concrete surface shall be inspected according to Section 5. After the patching and repairs of the concrete surface are completed, the repaired areas shall be reinspected according to Section 5.
4.8.2 All gouges, surface air voids, and other surface anomalies shall be repaired to a level required by the coating system as specified in the procurement documents.
4.8.3 All repair materials, both cementitious and polymeric, should be approved or recommended by the coating manufacturer as being compatible with the coating to be applied. Repair materials not recommended or approved by the coating manufacturer shall be tested for compatibility prior to their application.
4.8.4 The repair material shall be cured according to the manufacturer’s published instructions.
4.8.5 The repaired section may require additional surface preparation prior to coating application.
Section 5: Inspection and Classification of Prepared Concrete Surfaces
5.1 Surface Tensile Strength
5.1.1 All prepared concrete surfaces should be tested for surface tensile strength after cleaning and drying but prior to making repairs or applying the coating.
5.1.2 Surface tensile strength should be tested using a method agreed upon by all parties. (See Paragraph A1.6 for commentary on these methods.)
5.2 Coating Adhesion
5.2.1 If specified in the procurement documents and accepted by all parties, a test patch shall be applied to determine the compatibility of and adhesion between the prepared surface and the coating system. (See Paragraph A1.6.3 for commentary on this method.)
5.2.2 Coating adhesion should be tested using one of the methods agreed upon by all parties. (See Paragraph A1.6 for commentary on these methods.)
5.3 Surface Profile
5.3.1 If a specific surface profile is required for the performance of the coating system to be applied, the profile shall be specified in the procurement documents.
5.3.2 The surface profile of prepared concrete surfaces should be evaluated after cleaning and drying but prior to repairs or application of the coating.
5.3.3 The surface profile may be evaluated by comparing the profile of the prepared concrete surface with the profile of graded abrasive paper, as described in (6)16
ANSI B 74.18, by comparing the profile with the ICRI Guideline No. 0373217 (surface profile chips), or by another agreed-upon visual comparison.
5.4 Surface Cleanliness
5.4.1 All prepared concrete surfaces shall be inspected for surface cleanliness after cleaning and drying but prior to making repairs or applying the coating. If the concrete surfaces are repaired, they shall be reinspected for surface cleanliness prior to applying the coating.
5.4.2 Prepared concrete surfaces may be inspected for surface cleanliness by lightly rubbing the surface with a dark cloth or pressing a translucent adhesive tape on the surface. The test method and acceptable level of residual dust shall be agreed on by all parties.
5.4.3 The method used to verify compatibility of the coating to be applied over a contaminated surface or over contaminated surfaces that have been cleaned and prepared should be approved by the coating manufacturer and specified in the procurement documents.
5.5.1 If a specific pH range is required for proper performance of the coating system to be applied, the pH of the concrete shall be specified in the procurement documents.
5.5.2 The pH of concrete surfaces prepared by acid etching should be tested after etching and rinsing but before the prepared surface has dried. 18
5.5.3 ASTM D 4262 should be used to determine pH.
5.6 Moisture Content
5.6.1 If a specific moisture content is required for proper performance of the coating system to be applied, the moisture content of the concrete shall be specified in the procurement documents.
5.6.2 Prepared concrete surfaces should be tested for residual moisture after cleaning and drying but prior to the application of the coating.
5.6.3 ASTM D 4263,19 ASTM F 1869,20 or ASTM F 21 2170 should be used to determine the residual moisture content in concrete.
5.6.4 If required or accepted by all parties, any of the methods described in Paragraph A1.8.4 may be used to determine the moisture content of the concrete surface.
Section 6: Acceptance Criteria
6.1 The acceptance criteria for prepared concrete surfaces shall be specified in the procurement documents.
6.2 The procurement documents may refer to the specification
Section 7: Safety and Environmental Requirements
7.1 Disposal of contaminants, old coatings, acid from etch fumes shall comply with all applicable facility, local, state and federal health and safety regulations.
7.2 Handling of hazardous materials, machinery operating, and contaminated water and blasting media shall comply with all applicable facility, local, state, and federal regulations, worker protection, and control of airborne dust and –
Appendix A: Comments
(This section does not contain any mandatory requirements.)23,24,25,26
A1.1 General filled, patching or grouting materials are specified to repair or level the concrete surface. See NACE Stand 1595ard RP0892, ACI 515.1R, NACE Standard RP0390,
A1.1.1 This standard does not recommend surface preparation methods or differentiate levels of surface SSPC-TU 2/NACE 6G197,27 and Paragraph A1.4.4 for preparation that are specifically required for various more information about patching materials. protective system designs, types, thicknesses, and end-use requirements. These specifications should be A1.2 Concrete Finishing and Surface Characteristics23 decided and agreed upon by all parties (the specifier, facility owner, coating manufacturer, and contractor). A1.2.1 The method used to finish concrete surfaces affects the concrete’s surface profile, composition, porA1.1.2 Concrete and its surfaces are not homogenosity, and density. These surface properties affect the eous or consistent and, unlike steel, cannot be dis-adhesion and performance of concrete coatings. Typicretely defined. Therefore, visual examination of a concrete surface is somewhat subjective. The acceptance finishing methods are given in Table A1. These prop-cal surface properties obtained using the most common -or rejection of a prepared concrete surface should be erties are evaluated prior to surface preparation. based on the results of specific tests, including, but not limited to, tests for surface tensile strength, contam-A1.2.2 No preferred method of finishing concrete to ination, and moisture. accept coatings has been established by the concrete coating industry. The surface cure, surface preparation A1.1.3 Joints, cracks, and curing shrinkage of con-method, and type of coating system to be applied are crete should be considered in the design of the protect-all factors in determining the suitability of any specific ive coating system; however, these topics are beyond concrete finishing method. For example, broom finish-the scope of this standard. See NACE Standard ing is sometimes used because it gives a profile for the RP0892, ACI 515.1R, and SSPC-TU 2/NACE coating; however, most of the profile may be removed 6G197 for more information. during surface preparation if the surface is not properly cured, negating this inherent advantage of the broom A1.1.4 When a significant amount of weak, deterior-finish. When sacking is used to fill voids in formed conated, or contaminated concrete is removed during the crete surfaces, subsurface voids are created, and the course of surface preparation to achieve a sound sur-added cement is usually removed during surface prep-face, the profile of the remaining concrete is often too aration due to improper cure of the added cement rough for the intended coating system. In these cases, paste. and where form voids and surface air voids must be
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5. NACE Standard RP0390 (latest revision), “Mainten-9. ACI 515.1R (latest revision), “Guide to the Use of ance and Rehabilitation Considerations for Corrosion Con-Waterproofing, Dampproofing, Protective, and Decorative trol of Existing Steel-Reinforced Concrete Structures” Barrier Systems for Concrete” (Farmington Hills, MI: ACI). (Houston, TX: NACE).
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19. ASTM D 4263 (latest revision), “Standard Test Method for Indicating Moisture in Concrete by the Plastic Sheet Method” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM).
20. ASTM F 1869 (latest revision), “Standard Test Method for Measuring Moisture Vapor Emission Rate of Concrete Subfloor Using Anhydrous Calcium Chloride” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM).
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31. ASTM PCN: 03-401079-14, “Manual of Coating Work for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plant Primary Containment and Other Safety-Related Facilities” (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM, 1979), pp. 120-123.
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40. L. Harriman, “Drying and Measuring Moisture in Concrete—Part I,” MP 34, 1 (1995): pp. 34-36. November 13-18, 1993 (Pittsburgh, PA: SSPC, 1993), pp. 144-147. t
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42. W.H. Riesterer, “Hydrostatic, Capillary, Osmotic and 7, 1 (1994): pp. 4-8. Other Pressures,” Innovations for Preserving and Protecting Industrial Structures,” November 13-18, 1993 (Pittsburgh, 47. ASTM PCN: 03-401079-14, “Manual of Coating Work PA: SSPC, 1993). for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plant Primary Containment and Other Safety-Related Facilities” (West Conshohocken,
43. ASTM E 1907 (latest revision), “Standard Practices for PA: ASTM, 1979), pp. 124-127. Determining Moisture-Related Acceptability of Concrete Floors to Receive Moisture-Sensitive Finishes” (West Con-48. T.I. Aldinger, “Coating New Concrete: Why Wait 28 shohocken, PA: ASTM). Days?” SSPC 91-19: Protective Coatings for Flooring and Other Concrete Surfaces, November 10-15, 1991 (Pitts
44. N.C. Duvic, “Surface Preparation of Concrete for Appli-burgh, PA: SSPC, 1991), pp. 1-4. cation of Protective Surfacing or Coating,” Concrete: Surface Preparation, Coating and Lining, and Inspection (Hous-49. J. Steele, “Effective Sealing, Priming and Coating of ton, TX: NACE, 1991). New and Uncured Concrete,” Concrete: Surface Preparation, Coating and Lining, and Inspection, January 28-30,
45. P.J. Fritz, “The Use of Captive Shot (Roto-Peening) for 1991 (Houston, TX: NACE, 1991). Preparing the Surface of Concrete,” SSPC 93-06: Innova
Joint Surface Preparation Standard SSPC-SP 13/NACE NO.06 – Surface Preparation of Concrete